Kalimantan refers to the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo. Within Indonesia, however, Kalimantan refers to the whole island of Borneo, of which the Indonesian territory occupies 73%, while the remainder comprises Brunei and East Malaysia.
Kalimantan in Indonesia is also called Indonesian Borneo. It has a population of about 12 million people (2011 estimate), and has a total area of 582,593 sq km (224,940 sq mi). Kalimantan comprises four provinces, namely East Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, South Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan.
East Kalimantan is the second largest province in Indonesia. It measures 245,237.8 sq km (94,686.8 sq mi) and has a population of 3.6 million people. Its capital is Samarinda. Another major city here is Balikpapan.
The oldest Hindu kingdom in Indonesia has been discovered in East Kalimantan. Called Kutai, it dates to AD 350-400. Information about this civilization comes from an inscribed stone tablet now kept in the National Museum of Indonesia in Jakarta.
South Kalimantan is the smallest of the four Indonesian provinces on Kalimantan. It also has a population of about 3.6 million people. Much of South Kalimantan comprises flat land with swamps covering some 8,000 sq km of it. The river Barito is the main river and transportation line into the interior.
South Kalimantan is said to be the origin of the people of Madagascar. These people were seafarers who arrived in Madagascar between the 3rd and the 10th centuries. Today, the economy of South Kalimantan is supported by timber and the mining for oil, gold and gemstones.
West Kalimantan covers 146,807 sq km (56,682.5 sq mi) and has a population of 4.4 million people. Its capital Pontianak is located right on the Equator. This province has three national parks namely Danau Sentarum, Gunung Palung and Betung Kerihun.
Central Kalimantan is the only province sharing a border with the other three provinces of Kalimantan. It covers 153,564 sq km (59,291.4 sq mi) and has a population of 2.2 million people. This province has an annual population growth rate of 2.7% in 2010, the highest in Indonesia. The capital is Palangkaraya.
Each major city will have its own airport. There are international flights by AirAsia connecting Balikpapan with Kuala Lumpur and Singapore.