Johor Darul Takzim, also known as Johore, is the southernmost Malaysian state in Peninsular Malaysia. It covers an area of 19,984 sq km (7,715 sq mi) and has a population of 3.4 million people (2011 estimate).
Johor is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The capital city and royal seat of Johor is Johor Bahru, formerly called Tanjung Puteri. The old state capital was at Johor Lama.
Johor is bordered by Pahang to the north, Malacca and Negeri Sembilan to the northwest, the Straits of Malacca to the west, the Straits of Johor to the south and the South china Sea to the east. Singapore is located across the Straits of Johor. Tanjung Piai, in the district of Pontian, is the most southerly point of mainland Asia.
The name "Johor" is said to have come from the Arabic word Jauhar, meaning 'gem' or 'precious stone' . Before the name Johor was adopted, the area south of the Muar River to Singapore island was known as Ujung Tanah or 'land's end' in Malay, due to its location at the end of the Malay Peninsula. Located between the 1°20"N and 2°35"N latitudes, Johor is the most southerly point of the Asian continental mainland.
Johor is the 5th largest Malaysian state by land area and the third most populous, with a total land area and estimated population of 19,984 sq km and 3,300,000 respectively. The population comprises 54% Malays, 35% Chinese, 7% Indians and 4% others. It is the southernmost state in Peninsular Malaysia, and is . The highest point in Johor is Gunung Ledang (1276 m). Gunung Ledang is also known as Mount Ophir. Johor also has a 400 km coastline on both the East, South and the West coasts.
Its proximity to the equator means Johor has a wet equatorial climate. It experiences monsoon rain from November until February blowing from the South China Sea. The average annual rainfall is 1778 mm. Average temperatures ranging between 25.5°C (78°F) and 27.8°C (82°F). Humidity is between 82 and 86%.
On 19 December 2006, a continuous heavy downpour occurred in Johor, which led to the 2006-2007 Malaysian floods. Many towns such as Muar, Kota Tinggi and Segamat were seriously flooded with water levels as high as 10 feet (3.0 m) above ground level recorded in some areas. 15 lives were lost and many possessions destroyed, and this resulted in huge financial losses in Johor. More than 100,000 victims were evacuated to flood relief centres.
Johor can be reached by road as well as by air. The North South Expressway (E2) passes through Johor. The main airport for the state is Senai Airport in Johor Bahru.